Fossil Fuel Emissions
Emissions data for years 2018 and 2019 are preliminary.
Cite as: Friedlingstein et al. (2020).
Friedlingstein et al., 2020: The Global Carbon Budget 2020. Available at: Earth System Science Data.
The 1959-2017 estimates for fossil fuels and industry are primarily from an update of Gilfillan et al. (2019).
We modify these data as follows:
- Where available (42 countries) the national estimates reported by Annex-1 parties to the UNFCCC (2020) during 1990-2018 are used instead of CDIAC data.
- Emissions for India during 2009-2019 are overwritten using data from Andrew (2020a).
- Emissions for Norway during 1973–1989 are overwritten using superior data derived from local sources.
- Cement emissions are updated from Andrew (2019).
- Emissions for Aruba before 1950 and for the countries of the former Soviet Union in 1942-43 are updated based on information in Andrew (2020b).
- Global total emissions are calculated as the sum of all countries' emissions plus emissions from international bunker fuels.
- The 2018 and 2019 estimates (or just 2019 where UNFCCC data are available) are preliminary and based on energy statistics published by BP (BP, 2020).
Cite as Andrew, R., 2019. Global CO2 emissions from cement production, 1928–2018. Earth System Science Data, 11(4), 1675-1710, DOI: 10.5194/essd-11-1675-2019. Available at: https://www.earth-syst-sci-data.net/11/1675/2019/
Consumption-based Fossil Fuel Emissions
Cite as: Updated from Peters et al. (2011) and Peters et al. (2012)
Peters, GP, Minx, JC, Weber L, and Edenhofer, O. 2011. Growth in emission transfers via international trade from 1990 to 2008. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1006388108. Available at: http://www.pnas.org/content/108/21/8903
Peters, GP, Davis, SJ and Andrew, R 2012. A synthesis of carbon in international trade. Biogeosciences, 9, 3247-3276. DOI: 10.5194/bg-9-3247-2012. Available at: http://www.biogeosciences.net/9/3247/2012/bg-9-3247-2012.html
The use of data is conditional on citing the original data sources.
Land-Use Change Emissions
Cite as: Updated from Houghton and Nassikas (2017), Hansis et al. (2015), Gasser et al. (2020).
Houghton, R. A. and Nassikas, A. A. (2017), Global and regional fluxes of carbon from land use and land cover change 1850-2015, Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 31(3), 456–472, DOI:10.1002/2016gb005546 Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2016GB005546
Hansis, E., Davis, S.J., Pongratz, J., 2015. Relevance of methodological choices for accounting of land use change carbon fluxes. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 2014GB004997. DOI: 10.1002/2014GB004997. Available at: https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2014GB004997
Gasser, T., Crepin, L., Quilcaille, Y., Houghton, R. A., Ciais, P. and Obersteiner, M., 2020. Historical CO2 emissions from land use and land cover change and their uncertainty, Biogeosciences 17, 4075–4101, DOI: 10.5194/bg-17-4075-2020. Available at: https://bg.copernicus.org/articles/17/4075/2020/
The use of data is conditional on citing the original data sources. Data for years 2018 and 2019 are preliminary.
Gross Domestic Product
GDP: IEA/OECD 2019. CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion Highlights. Paris. Available at: https://webstore.iea.org/co2-emissions-from-fuel-combustion-2019-highlights
UN, 2019. World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision. United Nations Population Division. Available at: https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/
The use of data is conditional on citing the original data sources. Full details on how to cite the data are given above and in the corresponding web links.
The Global Carbon Project facilitates access to data to encourage its use and promote a good understanding of the carbon cycle. Respecting original data sources is key to help secure the support to enhance, maintain and update valuable data.
This material is general in nature. It is made available on the understanding that the Global Carbon Project (GCP) is not thereby engaged in rendering professional advice. Before relying on the material in any important matter, users should carefully evaluate its accuracy, currency, completeness and relevance for their purposes, and should obtain any appropriate professional advice relevant to their particular circumstances.
In some cases the material may incorporate or summarise views, guidelines or recommendations of third parties. Such material is assembled in good faith, but does not necessarily reflect the considered views of the Global Carbon Project (GCP), or indicate a commitment to a particular course of action. Links to other websites are inserted for convenience and do not constitute endorsement of material at those sites, or any associated organisation, product or service.